Title: Triple Jeopardy: Race, Sex and Gender in the Black Middle Class in South Africa. Author: Masana Ndinga-Kanga Independent Research report and documentary. Summary: Triple Jeopardy presents a snapshot into the lived experiences of the black middle class in South Africa, unravelling the current framing of this group as an identity driven by consumerism and disconnected from the country’s political landscape. Through film and research, the project is a practical exploration of the privileges and burdens of this class identity, including an exploration of ‘black tax’. This multimedia project unpacks the gender, race and class dynamics within the group, and the ways in which young people (women, in particular) navigate these in a context where intra-group (i.e. among black people only) inequality is one of the highest in the world. Title:Egypt Joint Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review 34th Session of the UPR Working Group Author: Masana Ndinga-Kanga and Arab NGO Network for Development Summary: In this document, CIVICUS and ANND examine the Government of Egypt’s compliance with its international human rights obligations to create and maintain a safe and enabling environment for civil society, assess Egypt’s implementation of recommendations received during the 2nd UPR cycle relating to these issues and provide a number of specific, action-orientated follow-up recommendations
Title:In Defence of Humanity: Women Human Rights Defenders and the struggle against silencing (2019) Author: Masana Ndinga-Kanga Abstract:In recent years, combined with existing threats, the rise of right-wing and nationalist populism across the world has led to an increasing number of governments implementing repressive measures against the space for civil society (civic space), particularly affecting women human rights defenders (WHRDs). The increasingly restricted space for WHRDs presents an urgent threat, not only to women-led organisations, but to all efforts campaigning for women’s rights, gender equality and the rights of all people. In spite of these restrictions, WHRDs have campaigned boldly in the face of mounting opposition: movements such as #MeToo #MenAreTrash, #FreeSaudiWomen, #NiUnaMenos, #NotYourAsianSideKick and #AbortoLegalYa show how countless women are working to advance systemic change for equality and justice. More WHRDs across the world are working collectively to challenge structural injustices and promote the realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Their power has been in the collective, despite constant attempts at silencing them. Furthermore, there have been WHRDs recognized for their invaluable contributions to opening civic space and protecting human rights in India, Poland, and Ireland. In the United States, WHRDs have won awards for the environmental activism, and in Iraq for their work in calling for greater accountability for sexual violence during war time. This policy brief responds to this context and highlights how the participation of WHRDs in defending and strengthening the protection of human rights is critical for transforming traditional gender roles, embedded social norms and patriarchal power structures. WHRDs are leading actions to advance sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR), socioeconomic justice, labour rights and environmental rights. Moreover, WHRDs work to ensure that women are included in political and economic decision-making processes, making clear the disproportionate effects that socioeconomic inequalities have on women and gender non-conforming people.
Title:Qatar Joint Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review 33rd Session of the UPR Working Group (2018) Authors: Masana Ndinga-Kanga and Khalid Ibrahim Summary: In this document, CIVICUS and GCHR examine the Government of Qatar’s compliance with its international human rights obligations to create and maintain a safe and enabling environment for civil society. Specifically, we analyse Qatar’s fulfilment of the rights to the freedoms of association, peaceful assembly and expression,and unwarranted restrictions on HRDs, since its previous UPR examination. To this end, we assess Qatar’s implementation of recommendations received during the 2nd UPR cycle relating to these issues and provide follow-up recommendations.
Title:'Lessons from Community-Led Peacebuilding in South Africa' in "Local Networks for Peace: Lessons from Community-Led Peacebuilding" (2018) Author: Masana Ndinga-Kanga Abstract: During the past twenty years of democracy in South Africa, a variety of local initiatives have sought to play a role promoting peace. They have used different models of engagement, have different constituencies, and network across communities in various configurations. One of the earliest examples of this network approach in the post-apartheid era were the local peace committees, which sought to create opportunities for constructive conflict resolution and to quell political violence during the transition in the early 1990s. This report explores one such network in contemporary South Africa, unpacking the role they can play in ending violence and the structural, political, and economic challenges they face.
Title: Forging Resilient National Social Contracts : Preventing Violent Conflict and Sustaining Peace. Authors: Masana Ndinga-Kanga, Hugo van der Merwe and Danial Hartford (2018) Abstract: Since the transition to democracy began in the early 1990s, the South African political settlement has ushered into policy a progressive framework for the realisation of socioeconomic rights, enshrined by the Constitution. However, this political settlement has failed to translate into an economic and social settlement that would see access to livelihood strategies and equitable access to service delivery improve in a manner that addresses historical grievances. As a result, these core issues of conflict underlying South Africa’s transition render a fragile social contract – vulnerable to divisions of stark inequality along race, class and gender lines. Tracing these two core conflict issues through historical and current analysis, this paper argues that the interaction of the political settlement and the ability of institutions to deliver services effectively has negatively affected state-society relations and the legitimacy of the reconciliation agenda meant to support inter-group cohesion.
Title: South Africa Case Study in "African Comparative Transitional Justice Study." Authors: Maxine Rubin, Masana Ndinga-Kanga, Hugo van der Merweand Caroline Huard (2018) Summary: The Comparative Study of Transitional Justice in Africaseeks to contribute to policy deliberations about transitional justice processes in Africa. The Study presents a trend analysis of 12 country case studies in Africa where transitional justice mechanisms have been implemented. Mapping the range of processes in this field, the Study pays attention to transitional justice mechanisms instigated between 1990 and 2011 to deepen the understanding of how these processes were developed, and the role of their respective contributions to the prevention or recurrence of war and repression. Specifically, the Study examines the factors that shaped state policy decisions in framing the diverse set of responses to dealing with legacies of dictatorship, civil war, and mass human rights abuses. Furthermore, the consequences of these decisions for achieving sustainable peace and preventing future human rights abuses is assessed. This chapter focuses specifically on the South African experience of transitional justice.
Title: Social Cohesion in South Africa - Workshop reports Author: Masana Ndinga-Kanga Click here for: 2015 Report 2014 Report Summary: These workshops aimed to bring together members of the UCT community who are working in the area of social cohesion for critical reflection and debate on the current social cohesion agenda in policy discourse at all levels. The workshop involved presentations from a number of researchers and policymakers working in fields that were influenced by the social cohesion agenda for the state.
Title: Unity in Diversity: Defining Social Cohesion in South Africa (A brief literature review) Author: Masana Ndinga-Kanga Click here to download. Summary: South Africa’s tumultuous and violent past came to a political end in 1994. While a great success in many regards for a near-peaceful transition, tensions remain high as the country struggles to reform the socioeconomic realities that face South Africans daily. For this reason, the National Development Plan highlights social cohesion as one of its strategic goals for 2030, an objective echoed in the constitution. The constitution provides the key impetus underlying South Africa’s social cohesion agenda, stating that ‘the country belongs to all who live in it, united in diversity’. The aim behind promoting a social cohesion agenda is to facilitate stability as government seeks to address the injustices of the past and the new economic challenges arising for the developmental state. However, with little understanding of what constitutes and facilitates social cohesion, and whether levels have improved or deteriorated since 1994, it becomes difficult to justify policies aimed at promoting social cohesion, and to assess whether or not these have had any impact on society.
This short memo forms part of a preliminary process looking at key literature surrounding social cohesion, and will ultimately feed into an assessment of how to create a social cohesion index for South Africa. Specifically, the paper will look at key literature already defining social cohesion and the key aspects of social cohesion identified by popular definitions.
Title: Ripe for Harvest: Delineating the contributing factors to the reforms on Cape wine farms during the 1980s Author: Masana Ndinga-Kanga (neé Mulaudzi) Click here to download. Summary: The South African wine industry has, since the end of apartheid, increased its international presence as exports have expanded and revenues have flooded into the Western Cape economy. Despite its recent success, however, significant challenges remain for labour on wine farms which are characterised by inequality, low wages, poor working conditions and persistent alcohol abuse. These challenges are by their very nature a continuation of factors found on wine farms since the slave economy of the 17th Century. In the 1980s, farmers began a process of reform that has, thus far, been largely attributed to the imposition of international trade sanctions onto the country in 1985. This paper, however, argues that some of the reforms observable in the 1980s can be explained as being a response to trends already observable in the previous decades. Particularly, labour shortages are used as a more nuanced explanation of reforms in the 1980s. While initially, farmers used coercive measures to keep workers bound to the farms; these became counter-productive in the 1970s: urbanisation provided workers with more favourable forms of livelihood strategies and employment. Ultimately, farmers were forced to reform in order to sustain their labour requirements in the face of low productivity and declining state support. Therefore, by exploring the 1980s in relation to previous decades, this paper will address some of the reform efforts during the last stages of Apartheid to understand how these impacted labours’ livelihoods and shifted labour relations on wine farms. An understanding of the nature of labour conditions during the 1980s provides useful insights into continuing trends such as the increased use of temporary labour in post-Apartheid South Africa. This helps towards an understanding of what constitutes a continuation of Apartheid’s paternalistic system, and what can be explained through the rapid integration, or lack thereof, of the South African wine industry into the global market. (Thesis submitted for MSc at London School of Economics - passed with merit)
Title: Unlocking Africa's Tourism Potential: Lessons from Vietnam and Cambodia Authors: Do Duc Dinh, Terence McNamme and Masana Mulaudzi Click here to download. Summary: In July 2011 the Brenthurst Foundation in partnership with Vietnam’s Institute of Africa and Middle East Studies convened two roundtables on tourism, one in Cambodia’s capital Phnom Penh and the other in Da Nang, a regional capital in Vietnam. The roundtables brought together local tourism officials, both government and the private sector, with senior tourism officials from three southern African countries – Swaziland, Zambia and Mozambique. This Discussion Paper draws on the findings of the roundtables and some additional research. The examples of Cambodia and Vietnam illustrate the immense potential of tourism not just as a contribution to GDP but as a catalysing force for development across society. As Africa grapples with acute unemployment, especially amongst its youth, and crumbling infrastructure – at least 30 per cent of which is in dire need of rehabilitation – a renewed focus on its under-exploited tourism industry should be a top priority.
Title: Africa in their own words: A Study of Chinese Traders in South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana, Zambia and Angola Authors: Terence McNamee with Greg Mills, Sebabatso Manoeli, Masana Mulaudzi, Stuart Doran and Emma Chen Click here to download. Summary: This study is perhaps the first to investigate and compare the perceptions and experiences of Chinese traders in a systematic way, across several African countries. The Brenthurst Foundation conducted nearly 200 in-depth interviews with Chinese traders in five countries in Southern Africa – South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana, Zambia and Angola – between April 2011 and February 2012. Their stories reveal a wealth of detail and insight that is not captured in the wider ‘China in Africa’ narrative that has become so prominent in discussions about the continent.
Title: Noughts and Crosses: Development Discourse and Black Theology in South Africa Author: Masana Ndinga-Kanga (neé Mulaudzi) Click here to download. Summary: At the turn of the 21st Century theories of development that sought to predict the behaviour of Third World countries were being deconstructed by scholars such as Escobar, Esteva and Green. These theorists challenged the view that Third World societies were in need of development through western intervention. The theory held that Third World countries were meant to follow a growth trajectory from underdeveloped to developed, epitomised by the west. In South Africa theories of development and progress were not uncommon. Instead, church and state notions of development intertwined to confront economic and political realities. Alternatively, notions of separate development were proposed by the Black Consciousness movement that were assimilated by the church and the state. To Steve Biko, a major contributor to Black Theology and Black Consciousness, without separate development black people would remain “shadows of men”: Almost fully human, but not quite. Hence the title of the paper Noughts and Crosses: in this paper I explore the development discourse of the Christian church that seeks to redeem both mind, soul and physical reality of men from a place of alienation to a place of integration. I pay particular attention to how development theory was expressed in Black Theology and Black Consciousness. I explore how the discourse of development (both economic and psychological) has been assimilated and transformed by the South African Council of Churches (SACC) moving out of Apartheid into a democratic South Africa. I aim to show that the SACC has inherited theories of development from western discourse which compounds alienation amongst the formerly oppressed black population in South Africa. This will be done by making use of the post-structuralism and discourse analysis explored by Michael Foucault and Arturo Escobar.
(Thesis submitted for BA (Hons) in African Studies - passed with Distinction.
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